EEN_characterIn this section, I would like to introduce some value chain models that can be applied to developing countries. A value chain describes the full range of activities from production to final consumption, such as production of primary products, post-harvest treatment, processing, packaging, distribution and marketing to wholesalers, retailers, and on to consumers. In each process, value is added to the product, and jobs are created. Since value chain development is closely related to job creation, international development stakeholders regard it as a promising approach to reducing poverty in developing countries. The concepts of the value chain models and case studies that I introduce in this section will tell you how jobs are created, what people are included in the value chain, and how they are benefited.